The American Marketing Association defines marketing as ''the process of planning and executing the conception , pricing , promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives''
A lot of words, but the key word is - ''satisfy '' . your products and / or services should provide a solution to an unfulfilled need in the market place.
The process of marketing begins with discovering what products customers need and want to buy. you will be facing an uphill battle if you provide something you want to produce and then try to convince someone to buy it.
The marketing process continues by establishing prices, letting potential customers know about products & services and then making them available - while generate profits for the business.
Simply put, marketing is based on the importance of customers to the business. Two key principles stand out. first, company policies and activities should be focused on satisfying customer needs. second , profitable sales volume is far more important than maximum sales volume.
Market research is key
It all begins with research. you can't be successful selling in or to a ''market'' you don't understand. It can be as simple as surveying a crosssection of your customers.
Other market research techniques include analyzing demographic data such as population changes, gender, income levels, age ranges, education levels and other information.
Whatever method you use, your focus should be on gathering enough information to determine who your potential customers are; what their needs are; and what products they would consider buying from a business like yours.
Market research should answer questions such as:
-Who are you existing customers and potential customers?
-How would you describe or profile your customers?
-where are they located?
-And, most importantly, are you offering the kinds of products and services customers want - at the best place, at the right price and in the right amounts?
There are many ways to conduct research. some hopeful methods include:
-Use the internet. - Develop simple customers surveys. -Review local maps. -Use economic development agencies and trade groups. - Review census and labor department data and publications.
-And lastly, Do not be shy about learning from your competitors - studying their customers, what they sell, traffic levels and any other market information you can find out.
An AIR waybill AWB is a non - negotiable transport docuemnt covering transoprt of cargo from airport to airport.
The Air Waybill must name a consignee ( who can be the buyer), and it should not be required to be issued '' to order '' and / or '' to be endorsed '' as it is not a title of property of the merchandise.
Since it is not negotiable, and it does not evidence title to the goods, in order to maintain some control of goods not paid for by cash in advance, sellers often consign air shipments to their sales agents, or freight forwarders agents in the buyer's country.
The Air waybill is not a negotiable document. It indicates only acceptance of goods for carriage. This document is prepared by the IATA transport agent or the airline itself and is addressed to the exporter , the airline and the importer.
Multimodal Bill of lading FBL
A multimodal bill of lading FBL is an international transport document covering two or more modes of transport, such as shipping by road and by sea. It is also used as a carriage contract and receipt that the goods have been received.
When it is issued '' to the order '' , the multimodal bill of lading is title of ownership of the goods and can therefore be negotiated. As a rule, multimodal bills of lading are not negotiable documents.
Only authorized forwarders integrated into FIATA ( international federation of freight forwarders associations ) can issued this document. It is addressed to the exporter, multimodal transport operator on destination country, and the importer.
Certificate of origin
The certificate of origin certifies the country in which the goods originated or in which the preponderance of manufacturing or volue was added. It also constitutes a declaration by the exporter. Virtually every country in the world considers the origin of imported goods when determining what duty will be assessed on the goods. nevertheless the exporter's own certification on company letterhead will suffice.
In the event the products were manufactured in two where the last substantial economically justified working or processing is carried out. An often used practice is that if more that 50 % of the cost of producing the goods originates from one country is acceptable as the country of origin.
In most countries, chamber of commerce are the key agent in the delivery of certificates or origin. However, in some countries, this privilege may also be extended to other entities such as ministries or customs authorities.
The inspection certificate for pre shipment inspection is a document issued by an authority indicating that goods have been inspected ( typically according to a set of industry, customer, government, or carrier specifications) prior to shipment and the results of the inspection.
Inspection certificates are generally obtained from neutral testing organizations ( e.g. a government entity or independent service company such as SGS o bureu veritas). In some cases the Inspection certificates can come from the manufacturer or shipper, but not from forwarder or logistics firm