Monday, June 15, 2015

Top 10 export and import documents part 3

                                    Top 10 export and import documents 

                                                              Part 3

AIR WAYBILL AWB

An AIR waybill AWB  is a non  - negotiable transport docuemnt covering transoprt of cargo from airport to airport.

The Air Waybill must name a consignee ( who can be the buyer), and it should not be required to be issued '' to order '' and / or '' to be endorsed '' as it is not a title of property of the merchandise.

Since it is not negotiable, and it does not evidence title to the goods, in order to maintain some control of goods not paid for by cash in advance, sellers often consign air shipments to their sales agents, or freight forwarders agents in the buyer's country.

The Air waybill is not a negotiable document. It indicates only acceptance of goods for carriage. This  document is prepared by the IATA transport agent or the airline itself and is addressed to the exporter , the airline and the importer.

Multimodal Bill of lading  FBL

A multimodal bill of lading FBL is an international transport document covering two or more modes of transport, such as shipping by road and by sea.  It is also used as a carriage contract and receipt that the goods have been received. 

When it is issued '' to the order '' , the multimodal bill of lading is title of ownership of the goods and can therefore be negotiated. As a rule, multimodal bills of lading are not negotiable documents.

Only  authorized forwarders integrated into FIATA ( international federation of freight forwarders associations )  can issued this document. It is addressed to the exporter, multimodal transport operator on destination country, and the importer.

Certificate of origin

The certificate of origin certifies the country in which the goods originated or in which the preponderance of manufacturing or volue was added. It also constitutes a declaration by the exporter. Virtually every country in the world considers the origin of imported goods when determining what duty will be assessed on the goods. nevertheless the exporter's own certification on company letterhead will suffice.

In the event the products were manufactured in two where the last substantial economically justified working or processing is carried out. An often used practice is that if more that 50 % of the cost of producing  the goods originates from one country is acceptable as the country of origin.

In most countries, chamber of commerce are the key agent in the delivery of certificates or origin. However, in some countries, this privilege may also be extended to other entities such as ministries or customs authorities.


Inspection certificate

The inspection certificate for pre shipment inspection is a document issued by an authority indicating that goods have been inspected ( typically according to a set of industry, customer, government, or carrier specifications) prior to shipment and the results of the inspection.

Inspection certificates are generally obtained from neutral testing organizations ( e.g. a government entity or independent service company such as SGS o bureu veritas). In some cases the Inspection certificates can come from the manufacturer or shipper, but not from forwarder or logistics firm


 


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